HOW ARE WEAVES MADE?
Fabrics are woven on a mechanical loom. The yarns are intertwined vertically and horizontally; depending on which weave is being manufactured. These are called filler yarns. The vertical yarns are called warp or filler yarns, and the horizontal yarns are called weft yarns. Stofnodig Stoffenshop Changing the number of vertical and horizontal yarns creates different weave variations. When the density and size of the weave is changed, the pattern of the float is altered. Float is the portion of the filling yarn, which rides over two or more filler yarns. Large floats are responsible for the smooth texture on satin-damask fabrics.
One measure of the durability of an upholstery fabric is the tightness of the weave. The number of threads per inch measures this. An easy way to check weaves tightness is to hold the fabric up to the light. The more light that shows through, the looser the weave.
The structural strength of the backing material (if any), the types of yarns used, the methods of finishing and color will affect the durability of the fabric. Synthetic fibers are so strong that occasionally a problem, known as pilling occurs. This is simply the fiber twisting into knots instead of wearing off, as in natural fibers. Some tightly woven fabrics, (example: olefin) could be affected by pilling. Check to see how rough or smooth the texture is. This may give you a clue as to whether this fabric will pill. A little investigating on your part can save you money and problems.
Below you will find most of the basic weaves that make up the wide variety of fabrics used on today’s upholstered furniture.
This weave is constructed by alternately passing filling yarns over and under the vertical yarns along the full length of the fabric. Most cottons, chintz, and some olefins are woven with a plain weave. Plain weaves are constructed by alternately passing the filler yarns over and under adjacent vertical yarns (warp) along the whole length of the fabric. It is very strong and versatile in creating different fibers and blends. Plain weaves are balanced. This means that the number of vertical and filler yarns are about equal.
This weave is a variation of the plain weave. Heavier yarns are used to attain the desired results. This is a variation of the plain weave. It produces a ribbed effect. The rib weave is achieved by using heavier filler yarns. If more filler yarns (weft) are used than vertical, a ribbed appearance occurs. This process is called cramming. This process weaves some blends of corduroy and similar appearance fabrics.
This particular weave is also similar to the plain weave. What sets them apart are that more filler yarns are used. The basket weave is another variation of the rib and plain weave. This is constructed of one or more filling yarns (horizontal yarns) riding together over and under two or more vertical yarns (weft). This weave is often not as strong as the rib or plain weaves because of the slippage or bunching of yarns.
Some examples of the basket weave are Haitian cotton and monk cloth. Monk’s cloth is a blended fabric. It could be blends of wool, cotton, linen, silk, rayon, or with any synthetic fiber. Monk’s cloth is a very durable fabric because it takes all the good points of the fibers it is blended with.
These are manufactured by using large surface yarns giving the characteristic of satin weaves giving them a smooth and lustrous texture. Satin weaves have vertical yarns that float over filling yarns. This shows more of the face fabric. If the yarn is smooth and lustrous, the fabric will be also. Yarns such as rayon, silk, acetate, and nylon are used for that reason. Because the float portions of this weave are not interwoven, as they are in the plain weave, satins are subject to snagging. Due to this fact, they are not suggested for heavy wear areas. Satin weaves have poor wear performance. The satin effect gives them a lustrous and eye pleasing appearance. This weave is used in the manufacture of brocade and tapestry fabrics.